Adhesive Tape Glossary
Adhesive Tape Glossary:
Polymerized acrylic ester monomers are the chemical base of acrylate adhesives. As a rule, synthetic resins are added. These adhesives can be dissolved either in solvents or in aqueous dispersions. The outstanding properties of acrylic adhesives are their high resistance to aging and temperature, and the greatest possible insensitivity to UV radiation and oxidation.
This is the force required to remove an adhesive tape glued to a surface. In order to achieve comparable values, laboratory tests are carried out according to fixed standards. For example, a 25 mm wide adhesive tape is glued to a polished steel plate and then withdrawn at a constant, fixed speed at an angle of 180°, and the required force measured in kp or N.
All tapes age. The longer they are stored, tapes properties change. These chemical-physical changes do not necessarily reduce the usefulness of the adhesive tape. Some adhesives actually have higher cohesion values only after aging. However, int the first six month, tapes should not show any measurable change in properties. If no negative properties can be measured after 12 months, it is considered the tape has a good aging resistance. Even after several years of storage, most of our adhesive tapes still fulfill their intended purpose.
This adhesive consists of an isobutylene and natural rubber mixture which contains soot particles. A high degree of crosslinking is achieved in our tapes by hot calendaring. This achieves the highest aging resistance and makes the adhesive suitable for long-term, outdoor use. Special advantages of our butyl adhesives are their high resistance to UV radiation and oxidation, as well as the unique property of cold welding. => Cold Welding.
A machine with heavy, mostly heated rollers arranged above or behind one another, in which surfaces of carrier materials are smoothed and adhesives are rolled to a desired, very precise layer of thickness. Even films of the highest tensile strength may be produced by calendering, often biaxially, (e.g., strapping tape.)
The material on which an adhesive is applied such as foil, fabric or paper.
=> Shear Strength
The force needed to break the adhesive layer. Low cohesion adhesives leave residues on the previously bonded surface when the tape is peeled off. This is especially undesirable in painters‘ masking tape.
Butyl adhesives have the property to immediately adhere to themselves, and as well as to almost any other surface. Once adhered they are absolutely unable to be removed. This type of bond is called cold sealing. Even with slightly soiled and slightly damp surfaces, a strong bond is still possible. However, cold sealing on siliconized surfaces is not possible.
Two or more carriers permanently bonded in order to add their respective properties together, thus providing an optimal overall carrier.
The gradual wearing away, beginning first on the surface and eventually leading to the complete destruction of solid materials due to the action of gases, acids and alkalis.
Cross-linking is the chemical modification of the molecular chains of substances to create a three-dimensional structure. The crosslinking of adhesives helps control the adhesion and cohesion and increases its resistance to chemical and thermal factors.
The mass by volume or density is the mass of one cubic meter (m3). It is stated in kg / m3. This is especially important in relation to foam tapes.
The amount of material in relation to a volume unit. The density is given in the weight of a cubic meter (=volume weight). In the tape sector, only the density of foam carriers is important.
The maximum voltage that can be applied to an insulating material without causing it to break down. Dielectric Strength is measured in volts.
The finest distribution of very small solids in water. With adhesives, Acrylic and Acrylate adhesive dispersions specifically are very important.
The ability of a flexible carrier to shrink back to its original length after the cause of its malformation is removed. This is especially important relating to PP film carriers.
(de. Elektrolytischer Korrosionsfaktor)
This is the possible corrosion effect of an adhesive tape on another material. To measure the factor, the adhesive tape is glued to a copper foil. If no corrosion occurs, the tape receives the Electrolytic Corrosion Factor 1. At the slightest corrosion, the tape obtains a corrosion factor below 1.0, which then further decreases, depending on the extent of the corrosion detected.
Utilized during painting work for masking, bundling, marking, etc. Flat crepe is made of paper, which is usually painted on one side of the surface or water-proofed. The thickness of the tape is usually a max of .2 mm. Flat crepe can be extended up to 15% of its original length to its tearing point.
A paper tape which is heavily glued, usually unpainted, and can be stretched at least 40% from its original length to its tearing point.
These adhesives consist of dry, non-adhesive synthetic resins, which are melted by high temperatures of 130 ° C to 180 ° C, and retain a high degree of stickiness and adhesion after cooling. The advantage of hot melt adhesives are their very high adhesion at normal temperatures. Disadvantages include sensitivity to temperatures above 40 ° C and UV radiation, a lack of resistance to plasticizers, and they have a low aging resistance. With admixtures, however, these negative properties are reduced. As a result, hot melt adhesives can become largely plasticizer-resistant.
This is the property of a material to oppose penetrating impurities or energies. Of great importance in the adhesive tape sector is the tightness of the carriers against chemicals, moisture and gases.
Refers to the immediate adhesion of an adhesive tape. It does not make any conclusion about the quality or suitability of the adhesive tape.
The partial or complete shielding of an object against external influences such as moisture, heat, cold, sound, dust, or electricity.
Adhesive tapes used in the electrical sector are classified by temperature resistance ranges, called heat classes. They are classed according to their continuous heat load capacity or continuous temperature resistance.
Class Y a continuous temperature resistance range up to 95°C
Class E a continuous temperature resistance range up to 120°C
Class B a continuous temperature resistance range up to 130°C
Class F a continuous temperature resistance range up to 155°C
Class H a continuous temperature resistance range up to 180°C
Class C a continuous temperature resistance range up to 200°C
Conclusions about other technical properties of adhesive tapes can not be drawn based on which Electrical Insulation Class a tape is assigned to.
Kapton is a trademark of DuPont. It is a => Polyimide Film.
The abbreviation for Kilopond. Kp is the force exerted by one kilogram in standard gravity. 1kp is the power unit with a mass of 1kg acting on its suspension point.
(de. Verbundmaterial or Laminat)
Two or more carriers permanently bonded in order to add their respective properties together, thus providing an optimal overall carrier.
A separating layer that may be either film, foil or a smooth paper which has been siliconized on one or both sides and thus adhesive repellent. Liners must lie between the individual adhesive tape layers if the adhesive adheres to its own carrier too tightly or if it is cold-welded (butyl) adhesive. The release liner for double-sided adhesive tapes must always be siliconized on both sides.
The abbreviation for Newton. 1 Newton is the force that accelerates a mass of one kilogram with 1m per s2.
Non-woven fabric consists of only longitudinally lying natural or synthetic fibers, which form by adhesive or by compression and a heat composite.
It means non-transparent. It is important especially for UV resistant tapes.
As temperatures increase, tape tackiness increases and bond strength decreases (excluding thermosetting adhesives). Although the tackiness decreases when the temperature drops, the bond strength increases only in the range of medium temperatures of approx. 18 ° C to 25 ° C. If adhesive tapes are stored cold, they must be brought to room temperatures of approximately 20° C for processing.
The abbreviation for polyethylene, which some carrier foils are made of. PE plastic films are soft and extremely elastic, have a high density, and have a low tear resistance. Polyethylene is very sensitive to UV radiation. Exposed to the light of day, polyethylene rots by itself without leaving any residue. Therefore, the material is classified as environmentally friendly. However, PE films are resistant to solvents. In the adhesive tape arena, PE films are important for the production of low-adhesion protective films, for underground pipe insulation and for the screen printing area.
Polyester film is distinguished by having a very high tensile and tear strength. The film is very hard to tear, even with a very small thicknesses such as 0.025mm. PET film is very resistant to high temperatures, alkalis, acids, oils and numerous solvents. Therefore, PET films play a very important role in the adhesive tape industry, especially in screen printing technology and the electrical tape sector.
Polymer film has a brown-lucent coloring. This film is both high termperature and extremely tear resistant. Polyimide tapes are widely used in the electrical industry as a high-performance insulation.
Polypropylene (PP) Films are used largely to manufacture packaging tape. PP films are resistant to alkalis, acids and solvents. They are typically tough, flexible and very tear-resistant. Since PP films are very sensitive to UV radiation, these films will rot outdoors without leaving a trace. For this reason, PP film tapes are considered very environmentally friendly.
Many carriers do not permit for a direct coating since their adhesive anchorage is insufficient due to their chemical-physical properties. Therefore, a primer is often applied to the carrier prior to the adhesive coating.
PU is the abbreviation for polyurethane plastic. As a carrier material in the form of PU foam, this plastic plays a major industry role. PU films are strong and are produced for high flexibility and tear resistance. PU foam serves as the carrier for mirror adhesive tape.
(de. PVC Folie)
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) films serve as carriers for adhesive tapes which can be produced with either a rigid or soft composition. In packaging, hard PVC films are utilized. In insulating, soft PVC films are used. Hard PVC films are very tear-resistant and easy to print on. PVC films usually have very good UV stability and therefore may be used outdoors.
A steel ball is rolled from an inclined plane onto the adhesive side of a tape to determine its level of tack. The shorter the path the ball can travel shows the more tack the adhesive has. The ball test is measured in cm. The test can be considered controversial because, due to its nature, achieving an exact measurement with a round ball is extremely difficult.
(de. Kautschuk – Kleber)
This adhesive is made of natural rubber, which is ground and then mixed with solvents such as gasoline. This dissolves the rubber and a tough adhesive is formed. Rubber solvent adhesives are distinguished by their high adhesion and very good shear strength. Their disadvantages are: their average temperature and aging resistance, lack of resistance to UV radiation, and their sensitivity to low (below 10 ° C) as well as elevated (from 50 ° C) temperatures.
Shear strength refers to the adhesive power or the bond strength of a tape when resisting forces applied to it such as weight and elevated temperature. Shear strength is measured and defined in weight or time units. Testing for shear strength includes gluing a piece of tape at one end to a rigid, fixed, polished steel plate. A weight is attached to the other free end of the tape. By increasing the weight applied it is determined the maximum weight that the adhesive can hold without the tape being pulled down, slowly slipping off, “shearing off”, and finally falling. The same experiment at different temperatures provides information about the resistance of the adhesive under varying conditions.
Siliconizing refers to coating a material with a thin layer of silicone polymer material. Silicone compounds are dissolved in solvents but also in dispersions. They are then applied in this dissolved state onto papers, foils and films and then interlinked under high pressure. Siliconized surfaces are very smooth and slippery. Since common adhesives have no hold on silicone, a silicone glue is utilized for binding.
Silicone adhesive consists of synthetic polymers that have rubber-like properties (elastomers). When combined with organic silicone compounds it provides an adhesive with an extremely wide temperature performance with both very warm and extreme cold temperature resistance. Silicone adhesives are the only ones to adhere to siliconized films and papers.
The contact behavior of the adhesive to the substrate under a minimum of time and pressure. In general, a very “sticky” material, for example honey, has no internal strength or cohesion. Nevertheless, a sticky material is often needed for rough, uneven and dusty surfaces. A material with high tack would need greater force to be separated. A material with low tack would permit separation and repositioning. Tack is measured by the ball test. => Rolling Ball Tack Test
Adhesive tapes should be stored in a dark location at a temperature of approximately 18°C. The length of time a tape is stored usually plays a minor role since most tapes have a good aging resistance.
To splice is to permanently join two separate items by either overlapping or interweaving their ends together. Splicing is very common in the foil, paper and cardboard industry. Various splicing tapes are used in creating an infinite number of possible paper, film or foil webs.
The perceived adhesive strength of an adhesive tape when touched, also called the thumb test. It provides only limited information about the quality of an adhesive tape. A “soft” adhesive such as acrylate may feel sticky, but it has less adhesion and therefore, lower shear forces. A “harder” adhesive such as synthetic rubber (hotmelt) has a stronger bond and retains the adhesive force longer.
Telescoping is when an adhesive tape, pushed out by strong internal pressure, has a sideways sliding of the tape layers, making the tape roll look like a funnel or telescope. This deformation, which does not affect the adhesive properties, is caused by winding the adhesive tape too tight during manufacturing or by a later swelling when the tape is left unprotected to high humidity.
Tensile Strength is the force required to tear a piece of tape by pulling straight on opposite ends under specified conditions. As a rule, the tensile strength is determined with a tensile testing machine. Both ends of a 25mm wide adhesive tape are firmly clamped, after which one end is pulled slowly away from the other at a standard speed until the adhesive tape breaks. The force used for this is indicated in Newtons (N). The adhesive plays no role in this test. However, large fluctuations may occur, as the production-related unevenness of the carriers play a crucial role. For this reason, the tensile strength value is usually provided as the average of at least 20 individual test measurements.
This is the special property of an adhesive which becomes firmer and stronger when heated. Thermosetting strips are used in electrical engineering, in the manufacture of capacitors and in coil winding.
UV rays are contained in all daylight, and are strongest in direct sunlight. They initiate a chemical reaction in rubber and hot-melt adhesives which destroys their molecular structure. This breakdown can happen in a very short time, and in extreme cases, within minutes of exposure. Therefore, adhesive tapes sensitive to UV rays must always be stored in a dark location, avoiding direct sunlight or outdoor weathering. Acrylic and butyl adhesive tapes provide extensive resistance to UV radiation.
A letter of the Greek alphabet. This is the unit of measurement utilized specifically for thin materials such as carrier films and liners. A μ is = 1 thousandth of a millimeter. (0.001mm)